Accounting Equation: Based on the Use of Fundamentals

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A basic accounting equation is utilized for financial statements in the configuration of accounting data, with no concern if you are just a tiny business or a multimillion company.

Accounting systems of all nations are based on the use of fundamental accounting equations. Accounting equation can formalize virtually every business transaction to be reflected in accounting within the framework of this equation or its several variations.


The principle of accounting balances and statements on profits and losses of nearly all foreign organizations is based on a basic accounting equation. This equation has the resulting formula:

Assets = Liabilities + Owner’s equity, where,

Assets: Reflect the total value of the business’s property and which is in its turnover. It is what it owns.

Liabilities: Reflect the bulk of the financing of an organization’s assets by banks, third parties, and private financial organizations. It is what the company owes.

Equity: Owner’s equity designates the value of investments performed in this organization by its owner/s (shareholders). Owner’s equity is everything that is remained from the assets after spending on all the liabilities.

Use of Accounting Equation

In the financial reporting method, one of the financial statements – the balance sheet-plays a fundamental purpose. It offers vital functions. The balance sheet firstly provides owners for the management, property state of an economic item. They will discover from the balance sheet what the owner owns, i.e., the quantity and quality of the company’s stocks that the company can influence and who was involved in organizing this support. Secondly, it is determined whether the enterprise will soon cover the responsibilities to third parties (shareholders, buyers, sellers, investors, creditors, etc.), according to the balance sheet. Thirdly, the capital and liability contents perform it possible to use by internal and external users.

Balance sheet data enables you to assess the effectiveness of placement of the enterprise’s capital, its capacity for the prevailing and forthcoming economic activity, the size and composition of borrowed sources, and the energy of their attraction.

Balance in Accounting

The foundation of accounting and bookkeeping is the principle of balance. The business requires funds to take out economic activities, and that these funds should be provided to the company by someone. The funds held by the company are called assets. The owner, the founder, presents a part of these assets. The total volume of funds contributed by them is called capital.

If the owner is the only one contributing, then the equation Assets = Owner’s Equity will be good. However, assets may be provided by someone else who is not the owner. The debt of the business for these assets is called liabilities. Therefore, now the equation will take the resulting form: Assets = Liabilities and Owner’s Equity.

The left and right fronts of the equation always coincide because the same assets are examined from two points of representation. The equality on both views of the equation is forever stored. It does not depend on the number of company transactions.

Rearranging the Accounting Equation

Formulation 1: Owner’s Equity = Assets – Liabilities

The equation determines what the total amount of the organization’s assets is:

what portion of it is the primary reimbursement account of the organization’s debt responsibilities to creditors

what portion of the assets is secured by the financial assistance of the owners (shareholders) of the organization persists in their ownership after debt responsibilities are repaid.

Formulation 2: Assets = Liabilities + Owner’s Equity

Components of financial reporting form the basic accounting equation or balance equation, which describes the organization’s financial situation and reveals the interrelation of the two principal reporting forms: balance sheet and income statement.

Formulation 3: Net Assets (Net Worth/Owner’s Equity) = Assets – Liabilities

You might also reach across the term “net assets” or “net worth.” Its value is determined as the difference between the value of an organization’s assets less its liabilities. In other terms, the value of the organization’s net assets is equivalent to its owner’s equity.

Formulation 4: Assets = Liabilities + Capital + Revenues – Expenses.

Accounting equality gives a visible representation of the economic interrelation of the primary records. The difference between income and expenses, a net profit (net loss) calculated in the income statement, raises or lowers the business’ owner’s equity value.

In computing to income and expenses, two more operations increase the quantity of equity reflecting the interrelation of the market with the “outside” world. These operations can also be inserted into the basic balance equation:

Assets = Liabilities + Capital + Revenues – Expenses + Investments – Dividends

In this pattern, the equation is rarely applied. At the same time, this form of the equation demonstrates increasing capital due to its activities. The possibilities for its change started from the outside.

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